On this page you will find a growing list of research to support the work you read about and see linked in the blog posts.

Retrieval Practice

Vaughn, K., & Kornell, N. (2019). How to activate students’ natural desire to test themselves. Cognitive Research: Principle and Implications, 4:35, 1-16. https://doi.10.1186/s41235-019-0187-y. 

Latimier, A., Riegert, A., Peyre, H., Ly, S., Casati, R., Ramus, F. (2019). Does pre-testing promote better retention than post-testing? Science of Learning, 15, 1-7.

Weinstein, Y., Madan, C., & Sumeracki, M. (2018). Teaching the science of learningCognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 3:2, 1-17. https://doi.10.1186/s41235-017-0087-y. 

Adesope, O. O., Trevisan, D. A., & Sundararajan, N. (2017). Rethinking the use of tests: A meta-analysis of practice testing. Review of Educational Research, 87(3), 659-701.

McDaniel, M. A., Agarwal, P. K., Huelser, B. J., McDermott, K. B., & Roediger, H. L. III. (2011). Test-enhanced learning in a middle school science classroom: The effects of quiz frequency and placement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(2), 399-414.

Abott, E. E. (1909). On the analysis of the factor of recall in the learning process. The Psychological Review: Monograph Supplements, 11(1), 159-177. doi:10.1037/h0093018

Paul, A. (2015, August 1). Researchers Find That Frequent Tests Can Boost LearningScientific American. Retrieved from

Roediger III, H. (2014, July 18). How Tests Make Us Smarter. The New York Times. Retrieved from


Steenhof, Woods, Gerven, & Mylopoulos (2019). Productive failure as an instructional approach to promote future learning. Advances in Health Sciences Education. Retrieved from

Dual Coding

Making Visuals Work: 

Mastery Learning

Zandvakili, E., Washington, E., Gordon, E., & Wells, C. (2018). Mastery Learning in the Classroom: Concept Maps, Critical Thinking, Collaborative Assessment (M3CA) Using Multiple Choice Items (MCIs). Journal of Education and Learning7(6), 45-56. Retrieved from

Lipsky, M., Cone, C., Watson, S., Lawrence, P., & Lutfiyya, M.N. (2019). Mastery learning in a bachelor’s of nursing program: the Roseman University of Health Sciences experience. BMC Nursing. Retrieved from

Teacher Preparatory Program

Pomerance, Greenberg, & Walsh (2016, January). “Learning About Learning Report.” National Council on Teacher Quality. Retrieved From

Recommended Books

Every student is capable of succeeding in every course so long as they have the desire and the faculty is willing to design the course to meet the needs of every learner.” Dr. Niki Bray

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